Insulin has a potent inhibitory effect on hepatic glucose production by direct action at hepatic receptors. The hormone also inhibits glucose production by suppressing both lipolysis in the fat cell and secretion of glucagon by the α-cell. Neural sensing of insulin levels appears to participate in control of hepatic glucose production in rodents, but a role for brain insulin sensing has not been documented in dogs or humans. The primary effect of insulin on the liver is its direct action.

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