CPPs (cell-penetrating peptides), including Tatp (transactivator of transcription peptide), have been successfully used for intracellular delivery of a wide variety of cargoes including various nanoparticulate pharmaceutical carriers such as liposomes, micelles and nanoparticles. Here, we will consider the major results obtained in this area with emphasis on Tatp-mediated delivery of liposomes and various transfection vectors. We will also address the development of ‘smart’ stimuli-sensitive nanocarriers, where the cell-penetrating function can only be activated when the nanocarrier is inside the biological target, thus minimizing the interaction with non-target cells.

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