The transcription factor NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) regulates critical cellular processes including the inflammatory response, apoptosis and the cell cycle. Over the past 20 years many of the components of the NF-κB signalling pathway have been elucidated along with their functions. Recent research in this field has focused on the dynamic regulation and network control of this system. With key roles in so many important cellular processes, it is critical that NF-κB signalling is tightly regulated. Recently, single-cell imaging and mathematical modelling have identified that the timing of cellular responses may play an important role in the regulation of this pathway. p65/RelA (RelA) has been shown to translocate between the nucleus and cytoplasm with varying oscillatory patterns in different cell lines leading to differences in transcriptional outputs from NF-κB-regulated genes. Variations in the timing or persistence of these movements may control the maintenance and differential expression of NF-κB-regulated genes.

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