An understanding of the mechanism of ATP synthase requires an explanation of how inhibitors act. The catalytic F1-ATPase domain of the enzyme has been studied extensively by X-ray crystallography in a variety of inhibited states. Four independent inhibitory sites have been identified by high-resolution structural studies. They are the catalytic site, and the binding sites for the antibiotics aurovertin and efrapeptin and for the natural inhibitor protein, IF1.

You do not currently have access to this content.