Although the mechanisms leading to the induction of RA (rheumatoid arthritis) are poorly understood, improper activation, proliferation, survival and retention of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and other leucocytes contribute to perpetuation of inflammation and eventual joint destruction through activation of stromal fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Fundamental studies in developmental biology, cellular biology and immunology have established critical roles for PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) signal transduction pathways in cellular chemotactic responses, proliferation, apoptosis and survival. Despite profound alteration of these cellular processes in RA, involvement of PI3K signalling pathways in this chronic inflammatory disease, and their assessment as potential therapeutic targets, has until recently received scant attention. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of PI3K signalling pathways, in particular regulation of FoxO (forkhead box O) transcription factors, and their relevance to RA.

You do not currently have access to this content.