Small GTP-binding proteins of the Rab and Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) families play a central role in the membrane trafficking pathways of eukaryotic cells. The prototypical members of the Arf family are Arf1–Arf6 and Sar1, which have well-characterized roles in membrane traffic or cytoskeletal reorganization. However, eukaryotic genomes encode additional proteins, which share the characteristic structural features of the Arf family, but the role of these ‘Arf-like’ (Arl) proteins is less well understood. This review discusses Arl1, a GTPase that is widely conserved in evolution, and which is localized to the Golgi in all species so far examined. The best-characterized effectors of Arl1 are coiled-coil proteins which share a C-terminal GRIP domain, but other apparent effectors include the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein)/VFT (Vps fifty-three) vesicle-tethering complex and Arfaptin 2. As least some of these proteins are believed to have a role in membrane traffic. Genetic analysis in a number of species has shown that Arl1 is not essential for exocytosis, but rather suggest that it is required for traffic from endosomes to the Golgi.

You do not currently have access to this content.