Many cell types can generate thin actin-based protrusive structures, which are often classified under the general term of ‘filopodia’. However, a range of filopodia-like structures exists that differ both morphologically and functionally. In this brief review, we discuss the different types of filopodial structures, together with the actin-binding proteins and signalling pathways involved in their formation. Specifically, we highlight the differences between the filopodial extensions induced by the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rif.

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