Oscillations in second-messenger signalling (e.g. calcium) have previously been shown to be important in the control of transcription. More recently, oscillations in localization and absolute levels of transcription factors and their regulators have been identified. Here we discuss the role of network motifs such as the negative feedback loop and their role in oscillatory signalling, and how oscillations in components of the nuclear factor κB signalling pathway are important to the dynamic control of transcription in response to a cytokine stimulus.

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