Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) are closely related endotoxin-binding proteins that function in a co-ordinated manner to facilitate an integrated host response to invading Gram-negative bacteria. Differences in the structure and function of BPI and LBP, as well as differences in their mobilization, permit highly sensitive pro-inflammatory responses to small numbers of bacteria at the onset of bacterial invasion and, later, efficient elimination of viable bacteria and their remnants and of endotoxin-driven inflammation.

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