Tumours are capable of activating blood coagulation through the expression of procoagulant molecules such as tissue factor, cancer procoagulant and hepsin. Initiation of the clotting cascade results in the generation of the activated serine proteases factor VIIa, factor Xa and thrombin. These proteases act via protease-activated receptors and tissue factor to alter gene expression, thereby modulating tumour cell growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis.

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