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Keywords: translation
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Articles
Biochem J (2022) 479 (10): 1059–1082.
Published: 23 May 2022
...Xuemin Wang; Christopher G. Proud Control of protein synthesis (mRNA translation) plays key roles in shaping the proteome and in many physiological, including homeostatic, responses. One long-known translational control mechanism involves phosphorylation of initiation factor, eIF2, which...
Articles
Biochem J (2021) 478 (14): 2775–2788.
Published: 23 July 2021
... of experimental approaches applied in these studies, and the mechanism by which translationally regulated genes allow plants to defend from pathogens or to accommodate those microorganisms that are beneficial for their growth or survival under low nutrient availability. Translational control...
Articles
Biochem J (2021) 478 (8): 1547–1569.
Published: 21 April 2021
... 3 2021 22 3 2021 29 3 2021 29 3 2021 © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2021 alpha kinase apoptosis cancer therapy protein synthesis translation Both autophagy and eEF2K are inhibited by signalling...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2020) 477 (22): 4367–4381.
Published: 26 November 2020
... cells to escape from immunosurveillance. Ablation of eEF2K in prostate and lung cancer cells markedly reduced the expression levels of the PD-L1 protein. We show that eEF2K promotes the association of PD-L1 mRNAs with translationally active polyribosomes and that translation of the PD-L1 mRNA...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2020) 477 (16): 3059–3074.
Published: 28 August 2020
..., the suppressor of position-effect variegation s u(var)3-9 and the gamma subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 ( eIF2γ ) has been found in insecta, and its significance is not well understood. Here, we analyzed the evolutionary history of this transcription unit in arthropods and its functions...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2020) 477 (16): 3033–3054.
Published: 26 August 2020
... leads to the accumulation of mitochondrial precursor proteins in the cytosol and activates several stress response pathways. These defense mechanisms engage a network of processes involving transcription, translation, and protein clearance to restore cellular protein homeostasis. In this review, we...
Articles
Biochem J (2018) 475 (23): 3797–3812.
Published: 06 December 2018
... in polyamine-depleted cells. In addition, decreased levels of chondroitin synthase 1 (CHSY1) and chondroitin 4- O -sulfotransferase 2 proteins were also observed on polyamine depletion. Interestingly, the translation initiation of CHSY1 was suppressed by a highly structured sequence (positions −202 to −117...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2018) 475 (10): 1721–1738.
Published: 24 May 2018
... ( christopher.proud@sahmri.com ) 11 2 2018 19 4 2018 23 4 2018 © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2018 mechanistic target of rapamycin post-translational modification translation Signalling through multiprotein...
Articles
Biochem J (2017) 474 (18): 3109–3120.
Published: 31 August 2017
... mRNA translation by binding to eIF4E–viral mRNP complexes, trapping them in a translationally inactive state and thereby sequestering the eIF4E–viral mRNPs into stress granules [ 29 ]. Another mRNA-binding protein present in both polysomal and translationally silent mRNPs is the proliferation...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2016) 473 (11): 1641–1649.
Published: 27 May 2016
...Yanwu Li; Gang Chen; Jun-Yao Wang; Tongtong Zou; Lan Liu; Lan Xiao; Hee Kyoung Chung; Jaladanki N. Rao; Jian-Ying Wang MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control gene expression by binding to their target mRNAs for degradation and/or translation repression and are implicated in many aspects of cellular physiology...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2015) 472 (1): 111–119.
Published: 30 October 2015
... journey to the cytoplasm, where it participates in translation. However, due to the size, complexity and variability of the mRNP, it remains technically challenging to assess its impact on translation. By designing a novel in vitro translational assay, we have been able to compare the translational...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2015) 467 (1): 91–102.
Published: 20 March 2015
... cells. However, whether GQSs form and are functional in plants remains essentially unexplored. On the basis of circular dichroism (CD)-detected titration, UV-detected melting, in-line probing (ILP) and reporter gene assay studies, we report the first example of a plant RNA GQS that inhibits translation...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2015) 467 (1): 63–76.
Published: 20 March 2015
... the translation initiation factor eIF4E. Genetic knockout of the Mnks impaired the migration of embryonic fibroblasts both in two-dimensional wound-healing experiments and in three-dimensional migration assays. Furthermore, a novel and selective Mnk inhibitor, Mnk-I1, which potently blocks eIF4E phosphorylation...
Articles
Biochem J (2015) 465 (2): 213–225.
Published: 06 January 2015
...Anne Roobol; Jo Roobol; Amandine Bastide; John R. P. Knight; Anne E. Willis; C. Mark Smales One of the key cellular responses to stress is the attenuation of mRNA translation and protein synthesis via the phosphorylation of eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α). This is mediated...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2014) 462 (2): 373–384.
Published: 07 August 2014
... this, we have conducted a molecular characterization of this aMBF1. Affinity purification of interacting proteins indicates that aMBF1 binds to ribosomal subunits. On sucrose density gradients, aMBF1 co-fractionates with free 30S ribosomal subunits as well as with 70S ribosomes engaged in translation...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2014) 461 (1): 43–50.
Published: 13 June 2014
...Isabel Carrascoso; Carmen Sánchez-Jiménez; José M. Izquierdo TIA (T-cell intracellular antigens)-knockdown HeLa cells show an increase in ribosomes and translational machinery components. This increase correlates with specific changes in translationally up-regulated mRNAs involved in cell-cycle...
Articles
Biochem J (2014) 458 (2): 213–224.
Published: 14 February 2014
.... This again reflects changes in translation rather than luciferase folding because, although heat- or chemically denatured firefly luciferase has been used as a model substrate for CCT, it has also been shown that de novo luciferase can fold co-translationally without the assistance of CCT [ 47 ]. The data...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2014) 457 (2): 231–242.
Published: 20 December 2013
... functions is CBC (cap-binding complex). CBC has a key role in several gene expression mechanisms, including transcription, splicing, transcript export and translation. Gene expression can be regulated by signalling pathways which influence CBC function. The aim of the present review is to discuss...
Articles
Biochem J (2013) 455 (1): 67–73.
Published: 13 September 2013
...Michael Aregger; Victoria H. Cowling Gene expression in eukaryotes is dependent on the mRNA methyl cap which mediates mRNA processing and translation initiation. Synthesis of the methyl cap initiates with the addition of 7-methylguanosine to the initiating nucleotide of RNA pol II (polymerase II...
Articles
Biochem J (2013) 453 (1): 71–82.
Published: 13 June 2013
.... 2009 2 984 994 7 Kudo K. Xi Y. Wang Y. Song B. Chu E. Ju J. Russo J. J. Translational control analysis by translationally active RNA capture/microarray analysis (TrIP-Chip) Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 38 e104 8 Bartel D. P. MicroRNAs: genomics...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2013) 452 (1): 45–55.
Published: 25 April 2013
... mRNA ( Figure 4 G), these translationally active foci are also enriched with Rac1 and β-actin mRNA ( Figures 4 E and 4 F respectively). Figure 4 Rac1, ArpC2 and β-actin mRNAs co-localize with actively translating ribosomes on lamellipodia ( A ) Using IF microscopy, puromycin was used to label...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2012) 443 (2): 573–584.
Published: 27 March 2012
... mitochondrial translation have not been addressed. YB-1 is a major constituent of translationally inactive mRNPs [ 35 ] and is also present in active polysomes [ 27 , 36 ]. YB-1 appears to exert a concentration-dependent effect on global translation. Low YB-1/mRNA ratios typical for polysomal mRNAs may result...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2012) 442 (3): 681–692.
Published: 24 February 2012
...Sébastien Pyr Dit Ruys; Xuemin Wang; Ewan M. Smith; Gaëtan Herinckx; Nusrat Hussain; Mark H. Rider; Didier Vertommen; Christopher G. Proud eEF2K [eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2) kinase] phosphorylates and inactivates the translation elongation factor eEF2. eEF2K is not a member of the main...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2010) 431 (1): 31–38.
Published: 14 September 2010
...L. Ashley Cowart; Jason L. Gandy; Baby Tholanikunnel; Yusuf A. Hannun Recent work, especially in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , has demonstrated that mRNA movement from active translation to cytoplasmic granules, termed mRNA‘p-bodies’ (processing bodies), occurs in concert with the regulation...
Articles
Biochem J (2010) 430 (3): 551–558.
Published: 27 August 2010
... (ERAL1) mitoribosome ribosome assembly rRNA translation The proportion of apoptotic cells was analysed using the APO-DIRECT kit (BD Biosciences) following the manufacturer's protocol. Labelling reactions were performed on 0.5×10 6 cells and FACS analysis performed on a three laser beam (633 nm...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2010) 429 (1): 43–51.
Published: 14 June 2010
... significance was defined as P <0.05 (*), P < 0.01 (**) or P <0.001 (***). lipopolysaccharide (LPS) critical illness selenium (Se) sexual dimorphism translation Se is an essential trace element needed for the biosynthesis of a small number of mammalian selenoproteins [ 1 ]. Se...
Articles
Biochem J (2010) 426 (3): 319–326.
Published: 24 February 2010
... and squamous carcinomas of the lung. Despite the down-regulation of the protein, tumour β-mRNA levels remained either unchanged (breast and lung adenocarcinomas) or significantly increased (colon and squamous lung carcinomas) when compared with paired normal tissues, suggesting a specific translation-masking...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2010) 425 (2): 295–302.
Published: 23 December 2009
...Victoria H. Cowling The 7-methylguanosine cap added to the 5′ end of mRNA is essential for efficient gene expression and cell viability. Methylation of the guanosine cap is necessary for the translation of most cellular mRNAs in all eukaryotic organisms in which it has been investigated. In some...
Articles
Biochem J (2009) 417 (1): 235–246.
Published: 12 December 2008
... will be translationally repressed by CPEBs, as well as determining the extent and time of cytoplasmic polyadenylation-dependent translational activation. Performing a software-assisted analysis, which has been developed based on the recently published combinatorial code ( http://genome.imim.es/CPE/server.html ), CPEB...
Articles
Biochem J (2008) 414 (1): 19–29.
Published: 29 July 2008
... integrate with HIF and how other cellular pathways such as chromatin remodelling, translation regulation and microRNA induction, contribute to the co-ordinated cellular response observed following hypoxic stress. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email s.rocha@dundee.ac.uk ). 29 5...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2008) 410 (3): 485–493.
Published: 27 February 2008
... 2008 Biochemical Society 2008 β-cell energy status eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) glucose protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) translation Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is mediated by a series of steps...
Articles
Biochem J (2006) 400 (2): 377–383.
Published: 14 November 2006
...Paulina Wakula; Monique Beullens; Aleyde van Eynde; Hugo Ceulemans; Willy Stalmans; Mathieu Bollen It is reasonably well understood how the initiation of translation is controlled by reversible phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF2α, eIF2Bϵ and eIF4E. Other...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2006) 400 (1): 99–104.
Published: 27 October 2006
... of the double mutations N162D/K134Q, N162D/L147S, N162D/F149S, N162D/T188I and N162D/D196N. The ability of the saporin isoforms and variants to inhibit protein synthesis was measured using a rabbit reticulocyte lysate-based in vitro translation assay system as described in [ 21 ]. The reaction mix...
Articles
Biochem J (2006) 399 (2): 249–256.
Published: 27 September 2006
... mitochondrial translation system employs two different EF-Tu factors named EF-Tu1 and EF-Tu2. Our previous study showed that nematode Caenorhabditis elegans EF-Tu1 binds specifically to T-armless tRNA. C. elegans EF-Tu1 has a 57-amino acid C-terminal extension that is absent from canonical EF-Tu, and the T-arm...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2006) 396 (2): 219–226.
Published: 15 May 2006
...Enrique Álvarez; Alfredo Castelló; Luis Menéndez-Arias; Luis Carrasco The PABP [poly(A)-binding protein] is able to interact with the 3′ poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNA, promoting its translation. Cleavage of PABP by viral proteases encoded by several picornaviruses and caliciviruses plays a role...
Articles
Biochem J (2005) 387 (1): 119–127.
Published: 22 March 2005
... The Biochemical Society, London 2005 N -acetyltransferase arylamine N -transferase (NAT) promoter splice variant translation 5′ untranslated region (5′-UTR) Human NAT1 (arylamine N -acetyltransferase Type I; EC 2.3.1.5) is found in most tissues, where it catalyses the transfer of an acetyl...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2004) 384 (2): 239–246.
Published: 23 November 2004
...Cornelia BRENDEL; Monika REHBEIN; Hans-Jürgen KREIENKAMP; Friedrich BUCK; Dietmar RICHTER; Stefan KINDLER In Drosophila oocytes and neuroblasts, the double-stranded RNA binding protein Staufen assembles into ribonucleoprotein particles, which mediate cytoplasmic mRNA trafficking and translation...
Articles
Biochem J (2004) 380 (3): 823–830.
Published: 15 June 2004
... a mechanism for translational regulation of these mRNAs. However, future experiments are required to ident- ify mRNAs that are translationally regulated by Scp160p. The intracellular distribution of Asc1p changes in cells entering stationary phase. In these cells, a significant amount of Asc1p was found...
Articles
Biochem J (2004) 380 (2): 523–531.
Published: 01 June 2004
... kinase family, TgIF2K-A has an extended N-terminal region that is highly divergent from other eIF2 kinases. TgIF2K-A specifically phosphorylates the regulatory serine residue of yeast eIF2α in vitro and in vivo , and can modulate translation when expressed in the yeast model system. We also demonstrate...
Articles
Biochem J (2004) 378 (1): 73–82.
Published: 15 February 2004
... that increases in eIF4E activity selectively improve the translational efficiency of mRNAs that have an excessive amount of secondary structure in the 5´-UTR (5´-untranslated region). The activity of eIF4E was modified in primary cultures of adult cardiocytes using adenoviral gene transfer to increase either...
Articles
Biochem J (2003) 369 (3): 667–673.
Published: 01 February 2003
... of this transcript was confirmed by isolating part of its 5′ untranslated region through 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends and analysing its tissue distribution. To study the initiation of translation on Y5 L mRNA, we cloned the Y5 L cDNA and two Y5 L cDNA mutants lacking the first or the second putative...
Articles
Biochem J (2003) 369 (2): 369–374.
Published: 15 January 2003
... examined. Translation of globin mRNA by rabbit reticulocyte lysate decreased by 30—60% when osmolality was increased from 0.35 to 0.53osmol/kg of water by the addition of NaCl, KCl, CH 3 CO 2 Na or CH 3 CO 2 K. In contrast, equivalent additions of the compatible osmolytes betaine or myo -inositol caused...
Articles
Biochem J (2002) 366 (3): 767–775.
Published: 15 September 2002
... rise to a transcript with a 548nt 5′-untranslated leader containing eight upstream AUG codons. We show that the presence of the 548nt leader resulted in a low translational efficiency of the corresponding PPARβ/Δ mRNA and propose, based on structural features of the 5′-untranslated region...
Articles
Biochem J (2002) 366 (2): 585–594.
Published: 01 September 2002
...)-mediated signalling pathway appeared to be responsible for induction of the remaining genes, which are not involved in secretion, but may be important after cellular recovery from ER stress. In higher eukaryotes, the PERK-mediated translational-attenuation system is known to operate in concert...
Articles
Biochem J (2002) 365 (2): 417–428.
Published: 15 July 2002
... element is the 3′ non-translated region of the mRNA. Complex sets of proteins from the soluble and non-soluble fractions of the liver interact with the β1.2 and 3′β elements. A soluble p88, present also in reticulocyte lysate, displays binding specificity for both the cis -acting elements. Sedimentation...
Articles
Biochem J (2001) 356 (2): 557–566.
Published: 24 May 2001
... a net accumulation of constitutively expressed proteins in the cardio- cyte such as myofibrillar and mitochondrial proteins [4,5]. There are two general translation mechanisms that accelerate the rate of protein synthesis, efficiency and capacity. Efficiency is defined as the utilization of the mRNA...
Articles
Biochem J (2001) 353 (3): 621–626.
Published: 25 January 2001
...Tricia A. DIGGLE; Tatiana SUBKHANKULOVA; Kathryn S. LILLEY; Nita SHIKOTRA; Anne E. WILLIS; Nicholas T. REDPATH Elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) negatively regulates mRNA translation via the phosphorylation and inactivation of elongation factor-2 (eEF-2). We have shown previously that purified...
Articles
Biochem J (2000) 346 (3): 849–855.
Published: 07 March 2000
...José M. IZQUIERDO; José M. CUEZVA Translation in vitro of the mammalian nucleus-encoded mRNA for the β subunit of mitochondrial H + -ATP synthase (β-mRNA) of oxidative phosphorylation is promoted by a 150 nt translational enhancer sequence in the 3ʹ-untranslated region (3ʹ UTR). Titration...
Articles
Biochem J (2000) 346 (2): 281–293.
Published: 22 February 2000
...Ruchira SOOD; Amy C. PORTER; Kun MA; Lawrence A. QUILLIAM; Ronald C. WEK In response to different cellular stresses, a family of protein kinases regulates translation by phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2α). Recently, we identified a new family member...
Articles
Biochem J (2000) 346 (1): 107–115.
Published: 08 February 2000
.... 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (e-mail kruse@;molbio.mu-luebeck.de). 9 8 1999 25 10 1999 29 11 1999 The Biochemical Society, London © 2000 2000 elongation factor human cells KH domain translation vigilin Biochem. J. (2000) 346, 107 115 (Printed...