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Keywords: protein kinase
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Articles
Biochem J (2022) 479 (10): 1059–1082.
Published: 23 May 2022
... is catalysed by any one of four protein kinases, which are generally activated in response to stresses. They form a key arm of the integrated stress response (ISR). Phosphorylated eIF2 inhibits eIF2B (the protein that promotes exchange of eIF2-bound GDP for GTP) and thus impairs general protein synthesis...
Articles
Biochem J (2020) 477 (13): 2451–2475.
Published: 02 July 2020
... directly controls the phosphorylation of a diverse set of cellular proteins, including Pro-directed targets that are likely to be important in PLK4-mediated cell signalling. Like many Ser/Thr protein kinases, PLK activity is itself controlled by phosphorylation in the activation segment; for PLK1...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2019) 476 (5): 875–887.
Published: 12 March 2019
... The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2019 autophagy crystallography kinase inhibitor protein kinase ULK1 ULK2 Autophagy is an essential mechanism for the survival of eukaryotic cells upon low nutrient availability and prolonged starvation...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2018) 475 (1): 1–22.
Published: 02 January 2018
... kinase 2) protein kinase predispose to Parkinson's disease, suggesting that LRRK2 inhibitors might have therapeutic benefit. Recent work has revealed that LRRK2 phosphorylates a subgroup of 14 Rab proteins, including Rab10, at a specific residue located at the centre of its effector-binding switch-II...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2017) 474 (19): 3355–3371.
Published: 25 September 2017
... that protein half-lives can also be regulated by post-translational modifications of the 26S proteasome. The present study reviews the ability of several kinases to alter proteasome function through subunit phosphorylation. For example, PKA (protein kinase A) and DYRK2 (dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated...
Articles
Biochem J (2015) 469 (3): 409–420.
Published: 23 July 2015
... This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 . 14-3-3 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) intellectual disability mass spectrometry protein kinase We have identified a key molecular mechanism by which cyclin Y...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2014) 464 (3): 323–334.
Published: 05 December 2014
.... The activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, the rate-limiting enzymes of the synthesis and degradation processes, respectively, are regulated by allosteric modulation and reversible phosphorylation. To identify the protein kinases affecting glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa , we...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2014) 462 (2): 199–213.
Published: 07 August 2014
..., the large number of cellular processes modulated by only three intermediaries, i.e. PKA (protein kinase A), Epacs (exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP) and CNG (cyclic nucleotide-gated) channels, poses the question of how selectivity and fine control is achieved by cAMP. One answer rests...
Articles
Biochem J (2014) 460 (2): 165–175.
Published: 13 May 2014
... with secondary hypocalcaemia), a disorder characterized by defective intestinal Mg 2+ transport and impaired renal Mg 2+ reabsorption. TRPM6, together with its homologue TRPM7, are unique proteins as they combine an ion channel domain with a C-terminally fused protein kinase domain. How TRPM6 channel and kinase...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2014) 458 (3): 559–573.
Published: 28 February 2014
... that the WNK (WNK lysine-deficient protein kinase)-activated SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase)/OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1) known to directly phosphorylate and stimulate the N[K]CCs (Na + –K + ion co-transporters), also promote inhibition of the KCCs (K + –Cl − co-transporters...
Articles
Biochem J (2014) 457 (3): 451–461.
Published: 10 January 2014
...Konstantina Stathopoulou; Friederike Cuello; Alexandra J. Candasamy; Elizabeth M. Kemp; Elisabeth Ehler; Robert S. Haworth; Metin Avkiran PKD (protein kinase D) is a serine/threonine kinase implicated in multiple cardiac roles, including the phosphorylation of the class II HDAC5 (histone...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2014) 457 (2): 323–334.
Published: 20 December 2013
...; Christine L. Gee; Ling Liu; Roger J. Daly; Gerard Manning; Jeffrey J. Babon; Isabelle S. Lucet Protein kinase-like domains that lack conserved residues known to catalyse phosphoryl transfer, termed pseudokinases, have emerged as important signalling domains across all kingdoms of life. Although predicted...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2013) 452 (3): e11–e13.
Published: 31 May 2013
.... A. Hellner K. Sawyer J. Grace M. Li W. Harlow E. Munger K. Kinase requirements in human cells: V. Synthetic lethal interactions between p53 and the protein kinases SGK2 and PAK3 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2010 107 12463 12468 11 Chandarlapaty S. Sawai...
Articles
Biochem J (2013) 449 (2): 469–477.
Published: 14 December 2012
... Å=0.1 nm) resolution. EssB-N is dimeric in solution, but crystallizes as a monomer and displays a fold comprised of two globular domains separated by a cleft. The structure is related to that of serine/threonine protein kinases and the present study identifies that the Type VII secretion system exploits...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2012) 446 (2): e5–e7.
Published: 14 August 2012
...Brian E. Ellis Plants contain hundreds of protein kinases that are believed to provide cellular signal transduction services, but the identities of the proteins they are targeting are largely unknown. Using an Arabidopsis MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) (MPK6) as a model, Sörensson et al...
Articles
Biochem J (2012) 445 (3): 431–439.
Published: 13 July 2012
...Michael A. Rieger; Tyler Duellman; Christopher Hooper; Magdalene Ameka; Joanna C. Bakowska; Bruce D. Cuevas MEKK1 [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase kinase 1] is a MAP3K (MAPK kinase kinase) that regulates MAPK activation, and is the only...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2012) 441 (2): 553–569.
Published: 21 December 2011
... ]. It is thought that, during evolution, the genes for two distinct protein kinases have fused, generating a single protein kinase capable of receiving an upstream activating signal from ERK1/2 to its CTKD (C-terminal kinase domain) and transmitting, with high efficiency and fidelity, an activating input to its...
Articles
Biochem J (2012) 441 (1): 325–337.
Published: 14 December 2011
..., which is activated in response to osmotic stress by phosphorylation of its T-loop residue (Ser 382 ). WNK isoforms phosphorylate and activate the related SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1) protein kinases. In the present study, we first...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2011) 437 (1): 157–167.
Published: 14 June 2011
... nuclear localization. We generate an SCA11-mutation-carrying knockin mouse and show that this leads to inhibition of endogenous TTBK2 protein kinase activity. Finally, we find that, in homozygosity, the SCA11 mutation causes embryonic lethality at embryonic day 10. These findings provide the first...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2010) 431 (3): 411–421.
Published: 11 October 2010
.... Specific peptide inhibitors for PKA (protein kinase A), but not PKG (protein kinase G), abolished cytosol-induced inhibition of MPT onset. Activity assays showed a cGMP- and cAMP-stimulated protein kinase activity in liver cytosol that was completely inhibited by PKI, a PKA peptide inhibitor. Size...
Articles
Biochem J (2010) 431 (2): 227–235.
Published: 28 September 2010
...Svetlana Gershburg; Leann Murphy; Manfred Marschall; Edward Gershburg A sole EBV (Epstein–Barr virus)-encoded protein kinase (EBV-PK) (the BGLF4 gene product) plays important roles in viral infection. Although a number of targets of this protein have been identified, the kinase itself remains...
Articles
Biochem J (2010) 425 (1): 53–54.
Published: 14 December 2009
...Philip Cohen Cell-permeable chemical inhibitors have become invaluable reagents for the study of cellular regulation. In the present paper, using protein kinase inhibitors as the example, a set of criteria are described that should be met before any investigation using such compounds should...
Articles
Biochem J (2009) 423 (2): 279–290.
Published: 25 September 2009
...Susan Goto; Zhong Yao; Christopher G. Proud The human family of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal-integrating kinases (Mnks) comprises four related proteins derived from two genes by alternative splicing. The MNK1 gene gives rise to two proteins, Mnk1a and Mnk1b, which possess distinct...
Articles
Biochem J (2009) 419 (3): 603–610.
Published: 14 April 2009
... the association of PI3Kγ with protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Specific inhibition of PI3Kγ suppresses fMLP-mediated activation of PKCα activity and ROS production, suggesting that the protein kinase activity of PI3Kγ is involved. Our data suggest that the direct interaction of PI3Kγ with PKCα forms a discrete...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2009) 419 (2): 247–259.
Published: 27 March 2009
...Nigel G. Halford; Sandra J. Hey The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins, catalysed by protein kinases and phosphatases, is the major mechanism for the transduction of intracellular signals in eukaryotic organisms. Signalling pathways often comprise multiple phosphorylation...
Articles
Biochem J (2009) 419 (1): 141–148.
Published: 13 March 2009
... formation. cytoskeleton protein kinase Rho Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) signal transduction ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase) [also called ROK (Rho-associated kinase) and Rho kinase] is a large (160 kDa) serine/threonine kinase ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissue...
Articles
Biochem J (2009) 418 (1): 191–200.
Published: 28 January 2009
... to develop adaptive responses. In this context, protein phosphorylation plays a fundamental role through the activation of multiple protein kinase families. Although the involvement of protein kinases at the plasma membrane and cytosolic levels are now well-documented, their nuclear counterparts are still...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2008) 413 (2): 315–322.
Published: 26 June 2008
...Resat Unal; Irina Pokrovskaya; Preeti Tripathi; Brett P. Monia; Philip A. Kern; Gouri Ranganathan Adipose LPL (lipoprotein lipase) plays an important role in regulating plasma triacylglycerols and lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that PKCα (protein kinase Cα) depletion inhibits LPL...
Articles
Biochem J (2008) 412 (3): 579–588.
Published: 28 May 2008
... lacking one of the four kinases known to phosphorylate eIF2α, increased phosphorylation of eIF2α still occurred after inhibition of the 26S proteasome. These three cell lines included a deletion of the PKR (double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase); a deletion of the PERK (PKR-like endoplasmic...
Articles
Biochem J (2008) 412 (2): e15–e16.
Published: 14 May 2008
... presented their discovery that simulated ischaemia causes rapid activation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) which phosphorylates and activates p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) leading to Bax activation and translocation to mitochondria in isolated cardiac myocytes. This was the first report...
Articles
Biochem J (2008) 411 (2): 249–260.
Published: 27 March 2008
...Abdallah K. Al-Hakim; Anna Zagorska; Louise Chapman; Maria Deak; Mark Peggie; Dario R. Alessi AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-related kinases regulate cell polarity as well as proliferation and are activated by the LKB1-tumour suppressor kinase. In the present study we demonstrate that the AMPK...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2008) 411 (1): 27–32.
Published: 13 March 2008
... protein kinase topoisomerase IIα substrate specificity Plk (polo-like kinase), which originates from the Drosophila polo gene, is a serine/threonine kinase involved in cell-cycle regulation [ 1 , 2 ] and is characterized by a conserved N-terminal kinase domain and a homologous C-terminal...
Articles
Biochem J (2008) 409 (1): 117–127.
Published: 11 December 2007
... of the present results, we propose that AtPI4Kγ4 and AtPI4Kγ7 should be designated UbDKγ4 and UbDKγ7 ( ub iquitin-like d omain k inases γ4 and γ7). These UBL-domain-containing AtPI4Ks correspond to a new PIKK subfamily of protein kinases. Furthermore, UFD1 and RPN10 phosphorylation represents an additional...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2007) 408 (3): 297–315.
Published: 28 November 2007
...Jenny Bain; Lorna Plater; Matt Elliott; Natalia Shpiro; C. James Hastie; Hilary Mclauchlan; Iva Klevernic; J. Simon C. Arthur; Dario R. Alessi; Philip Cohen The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70–80...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2007) 405 (3): 513–522.
Published: 13 July 2007
...Laura R. Pearce; Xu Huang; Jérôme Boudeau; Rafał Pawłowski; Stephan Wullschleger; Maria Deak; Adel F. M. Ibrahim; Robert Gourlay; Mark A. Magnuson; Dario R. Alessi The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) protein kinase is an important regulator of cell growth. Two complexes of mTOR have been...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2007) 405 (2): 307–317.
Published: 27 June 2007
... (leucine-rich repeat protein kinase-2) predispose humans to develop late-onset PD [Parkinson's disease; OMIM™ (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man™) accession number 609007], with a clinical appearance indistinguishable from idiopathic PD [ 1 – 4 ]. The genetic analysis undertaken to date indicates...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2007) 405 (1): 21–30.
Published: 13 June 2007
... previously identified Dsk1p ( dis1 -suppressing protein kinase) as the orthologue of human SRPK1 in fission yeast. In addition to its similarity of gene structure to higher eukaryotes, fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a unicellular eukaryotic organism in which alternative splicing takes place...
Articles
Biochem J (2006) 397 (1): 223–231.
Published: 14 June 2006
...-1), leading to its activation. Recent studies indicated that SPAK and OSR1 are phosphorylated and activated by the WNK1 [with no K (lysine) protein kinase-1] and WNK4, genes mutated in humans affected by Gordon's hypertension syndrome. In the present study, we have identified three residues in NKCC1...
Articles
Biochem J (2006) 397 (1): 213–222.
Published: 14 June 2006
...-activated kinase (Pak) protein kinase signal transduction T cell Chemokines, such as SDF-1α (stromal-cell derived factor-1α/CXCL12), trigger profound, spatially polarized cytoskeletal changes [ 1 , 2 ] that culminate in chemotaxis, a process by which cells follow the gradient of a chemokine...
Articles
Biochem J (2006) 396 (2): 347–354.
Published: 15 May 2006
...-tagged fragment of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase α (lane a), untransfected cells (lane b), or cells expressing FLAG–HAS3 (lane c) or FLAG–HAS3–PrC (lane d); the primary antibody was the anti-FLAG M2 monoclonal antibody; the film exposure time was 10 s. ( B ) Extracts were from cells...
Articles
Biochem J (2005) 391 (1): 17–24.
Published: 26 September 2005
...Alberto C. Vitari; Maria Deak; Nick A. Morrice; Dario R. Alessi Mutations in the human genes encoding WNK1 [with no K (lysine) protein kinase-1] and the related protein kinase WNK4 are the cause of Gordon's hypertension syndrome. Little is known about the molecular mechanism by which WNK isoforms...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem J (2005) 390 (1): 293–302.
Published: 09 August 2005
...Stefano Ferrari; Oriano Marin; Mario A. Pagano; Flavio Meggio; Daniel Hess; Mahmoud El-Shemerly; Agnieszka Krystyniak; Lorenzo A. Pinna AurA (Aurora-A) is a ubiquitous protein kinase regulating entry into mitosis and shown to promote transformation upon overexpression. In order to gain information...
Articles
Biochem J (2005) 389 (2): 389–395.
Published: 05 July 2005
...(3,4,5,6) P 4 1-kinase in Sf9 insect cells and purified the enzyme using Ni–agarose chromatography. Protein kinase activity was eluted from the Ni–agarose column, but this did not co-elute with the Ins(3,4,5,6) P 4 1-kinase, indicating that the protein kinase and inositol kinase activities belong...
Articles
Biochem J (2005) 388 (2): 705–712.
Published: 24 May 2005
... Xenopus eggs. In the present study, we describe a human cell-free system that reproduces a DNA-dependent checkpoint pathway acting on the Chk1 protein kinase. In this system, double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides induce the phosphorylation of Chk1 at activating sites targeted by ATR [ATM (ataxia...
Articles
Biochem J (2005) 385 (3): 729–736.
Published: 24 January 2005
... intracellular protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) phosphorylation sites and losing the intracellular protein kinase C motif. The plasmids containing NTPDase2α or NTPDase2β cDNA were used to stably transfect Chinese-hamster ovary-S cells. Imaging studies showed that NTPDase2α was predominantly membrane-bound...
Articles
Biochem J (2005) 385 (3): 695–702.
Published: 24 January 2005
...-activated protein kinase) signal-integrating kinases 1 and 2 respectively] that phosphorylate mammalian eIF4E. Mnk1 is activated by both mitogen- and stress-activated signalling pathways [ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and p38 MAPK], whereas Mnk2 contains a MAPK-binding motif that is selective...
Articles
Biochem J (2004) 379 (3): 697–702.
Published: 01 May 2004
...Jiang-Hong LIU; Zhi-Xin WANG Protein phosphorylation and limited proteolysis are two most common regulatory mechanisms involving the energy-dependent covalent modification of regulatory enzymes. In addition to modifying other proteins, many protein kinases and proteases catalyse automodification...
Articles
Biochem J (2004) 377 (2): 395–405.
Published: 15 January 2004
... kinase family (the piD261 family) distantly related in sequence to the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily. It has been demonstrated that the yeast protein displays Ser/Thr phosphotransferase activity in vitro and contains all the invariant residues of the family. This novel protein kinase appears...
Articles
Biochem J (2003) 374 (2): 453–461.
Published: 01 September 2003
... TNF receptor subtypes are involved in activating the lipase. In the present study, we show for the first time that both type I 55 kDa TNFR (TNFR1) and type II 75 kDa TNFR (TNFR2) stimulate cPLA 2 enzyme, but with distinct signalling mechanisms. TNFR1 activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK...
Articles
Biochem J (2003) 374 (2): 559–565.
Published: 01 September 2003
...Wensheng DENG; Asha PARBHU-PATEL; David J. MEYER; David A. BAKER The Plasmodium falciparum cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PfPKG) uniquely contains three cGMP binding sites, but also has a ‘degenerate’ fourth site. The role of each cGMP-binding site in PfPKG activation remains unknown. We have...