Mitochondrial β-oxidation is the most prominent pathway for fatty acid oxidation but alternative oxidative metabolism exists. Fatty acid ω-oxidation is one of these pathways and forms dicarboxylic acids as products. These dicarboxylic acids are metabolized through peroxisomal β-oxidation representing an alternative pathway, which could potentially limit the toxic effects of fatty acid accumulation. Although dicarboxylic acid metabolism is highly active in liver and kidney, its role in physiology has not been explored in depth. In this review, we summarize the biochemical mechanism of the formation and degradation of dicarboxylic acids through ω- and β-oxidation, respectively. We will discuss the role of dicarboxylic acids in different (patho)physiological states with a particular focus on the role of the intermediates and products generated through peroxisomal β-oxidation. This review is expected to increase the understanding of dicarboxylic acid metabolism and spark future research.

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