Lysine methylation signaling is well studied for its key roles in the regulation of transcription states through modifications on histone proteins. While histone lysine methylation has been extensively studied, recent discoveries of lysine methylation on thousands of non-histone proteins has broadened our appreciation for this small chemical modification in the regulation of protein function. In this review, we highlight the significance of histone and non-histone lysine methylation signaling in skeletal muscle biology, spanning development, maintenance, regeneration, and disease progression. Furthermore, we discuss potential future implications for its roles in skeletal muscle biology as well as clinical applications for the treatment of skeletal muscle-related diseases.

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